Dr. Thomas Hillas was the head surgeon at Ballarat Base Hospital.
Dr. Hillas was operating on a woman on the 13th January 1872 for a large ovarian cyst which was found at the time of procedure to contain 11 litres of fluid.
To his suprise on opening the abdomen he discovered his patient was also full term pregnant.
So, he decided he'd incise the uterus and remove the baby as well as drain the cyst.
This ended up being the first caeserean section performed in Australian. And even more shockingly, as the mortality rate for a caeserean section at this time was enormously high, both the mother and the infant survived.
(Dr Hillas's home Winchester House in Ballarat)
The first planned caeserean section in Australia did not occur thereafter until 1885 at the Alfred in Melbourne and the procedure was still rare until the 1950s as the mortality rate was close to 25%. By the 1950s thanks to antibiotics it had become the accepted solution for seriously obstructed labour and was being used in 2-5% of cases with a mortality rate of 0.15%.
All of which means Dr. Hillas's patients were very lucky!
*(Some may argue he was in fact a surgeon but I would suggest that the early rural doctors who saw all manner of patients were the quintessential General Practitioners and so I will claim them for my specialty)